c = v?; c=2.9979×108 m/s
1Hz = 1/s; 1nm = 10-9 m; 1A=10-10 m
E=hv; h = 6.626 x 10-34Js; Av = 6.022 x 1023 photons/mol;
1 moles of photons = 6.022 x 1023 photons
E=hc/?E = hv = -2.18 x 10-18J(1/n2f-1/n2i)
A photon is emitted when ni>nf; ?E is negative
A photon is absorbed when nf>ni;?E is positive
Ryderbg formula 1/wavelength = R[1/n2i-1/n2f); R = 1.097×107
En = -RH[Z2/n2]; ?E = – RH[Z2/n2f- Z2/n2i]; RH = 2.178 x10-18 J
?E = Ef – Ei = hv
1J = 1kg m2/s2
? = h/mv
KE = ? mv2; v2= 2KE/m
Wavelength and frequency are inversely related
Quantum numbers:
n = size (shell),
l=shape (subshell), depend on n and range from 0 to n-1
l=0 s orbital => 1 orbital
l=1 p orbital => 3 orbitals
l=2 d orbital => 5 orbitals
l=3 f orbital => 7 orbitals
ml=orientation (orbital); depend on value of l and range from –l..0…+lThe number of sublevels within a level = n
The number of orbitals within a sublevel = 2l+1
The number of orbitals in a level = n2
ms = electron’s spin; +1/2 or -1/2
Pauli Exclusion Principle = No 2 electrons in an atom can have identical sets of
4 quantum numbers.CHAPTER 7
Effective nuclear charge, Z = increases across a period owning to incomplete screening
by inner electrons.
It decrease or changes very little down a group.
Orbital energies drop as Z increases.
Z*=[Z – (no. inner electrons)]
Atomic Radius = increases down a group because of the larger sizes of the orbitals with higher
quantum numbers.
Decreases across a period from left to right due to increase effective nuclear charge.
Ionization energy = increases across the period from left to right. Decreases going down a group.
Electron affinity = Become less exothermic down a group. Become more exothermic across a period.
Isoelectric = decreasing from left to right across a row.
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7pChapter 8
chapter 9
Chapter 10
PA = XA x Ptotal
XA = nA/Ntotal
Ptotal = Pcollected gas +…